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Are Stress Hormones and Serotonin Related to Aggression in Primates?-Reply

J. Dee Higley, PhD; Patrick T. Mehlman, PhD; David Taub, PhD; Stephen J. Suomi, PhD; Sue B. Higley; James M. Vickers, DVM; Markku Linnoila, PhD, MD
Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1994;51(1):73. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.1994.03950010073012.
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In reply  Dr Reus criticizes as "overstated" and "critically dependent on one subject" our reporting of a significant relationship between CSF 5-HIAA concentrations and aggression. We note that even when the single subject in question is dropped from the analysis, the results remain statistically significant (r=.46, P<.05). While our study is the first, to our knowledge, to correlate interindividual differences in CSF 5-HIAA with aggression in nonhuman primates, our primary hypothesis of a negative correlation between aggression and CSF 5-HIAA was based on other cited studies of nonhuman primates, showing that increasing or decreasing serotonin activity pharmacologically produces the decrease or increase in aggression, respectively.In a follow-up study of these subjects, we extended this initial finding. We reported at the meeting of the American Society of Primatology1 that when direct behavioral observations of these animals are collected, they are more impulsive and engage in aggressive acts with a high likelihood of


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