We're unable to sign you in at this time. Please try again in a few minutes.
We were able to sign you in, but your subscription(s) could not be found. Please try again in a few minutes.
There may be a problem with your account. Please contact the AMA Service Center to resolve this issue.
Contact the AMA Service Center:
Telephone: 1 (800) 262-2350 or 1 (312) 670-7827  *   Email: subscriptions@jamanetwork.com
Error Message ......
Article |

Increased Pressure for Rapid Eye Movement Sleep at Time of Hospital Admission Predicts Relapse in Nondepressed Patients With Primary Alcoholism at 3-Month Follow-up

J. Christian Gillin, MD; Tom L. Smith, PhD; Michael Irwin, MD; Nelson Butters, PhD; Anna Demodena; Marc Schuckit, MD
Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1994;51(3):189-197. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.1994.03950030025003.
Text Size: A A A
Published online


Objective:  To determine whether polygraphic sleep recordings, obtained at the time of admission to an inpatient alcohol treatment program, predict abstinence and relapse 3 months following hospital discharge in nondepressed patients with primary alcoholism.

Design:  Two independent, consecutive cohorts of patients (group 1, n=28; group 2, n=17) underwent all-night polygraphic sleep recordings and other clinical evaluations during the first and fourth weeks of a 1-month inpatient treatment program within a Veteran Affairs Medical Center. They were reevaluated 3 months following discharge to the community. None were treated with disulfiram or other medications during or after hospitalization.

Patients:  All subjects were male veterans with primary alcoholism and without significant preexisting, secondary, or comorbid diagnoses such as major medical problems, depression, antisocial personality, or drug addiction.

Outcome Measures:  Relapse was defined as any alcohol consumption between discharge from the hospital and 3-month follow-up.

Results:  Ten (36%) of 28 patients in group 1 were Relapsers at 3-month follow-up. Relapsers in group 1 showed significantly shorter Rapid Eye Movement (REM) latency, increased Rapid Eye Movement percent (REM%), and increased REM Density during their admission sleep studies compared with Abstainers. To replicate these observations, group 2 was then studied as a validation sample. Six (35%) of 17 patients relapsed. As in group 1, Relapsers had significantly shorter REM latency and increased REM% compared with Abstainers; REM Density was not significantly different in the Relapsers as compared with Abstainers in group 2. Using a principal components analysis based on these three REM sleep measures to determine "REM pressure," three separate discriminant function analyses (DFAs) were calculated: one for each group and one for all patients (n=45) together. The DFA from group 1 correctly classified 22 (78.6%) of the 28 patients in group 1 and 13 (76.5%) of the 17 patients in group 2 as Relapsers or Abstainers. The DFA from group 2 correctly classified 13 (76.5%) of the 17 patients in group 2 and 23 (82.1%) of the 28 patients in group 1. The DFA formed from both groups together correctly classified 36 (80%) of the 45 patients. When the REM sleep measures at hospital admission and discharge were compared, no statistically significant effect of time was observed. Abstinence and relapse were not consistently related to other clinical measures at the time of hospital admission such as age, duration and severity of alcoholism, marital status, employment, hepatic enzyme levels, cognitive performance, or depression ratings.

Conclusion:  Short REM latency, increased REM%, and, possibly, increased REM Density at the time of admission to a 1-month inpatient alcohol treatment program predict relapse in nondepressed patients with primary alcoholism by 3 months following hospital discharge.


Sign in

Purchase Options

• Buy this article
• Subscribe to the journal
• Rent this article ?





Also Meets CME requirements for:
Browse CME for all U.S. States
Accreditation Information
The American Medical Association is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education to provide continuing medical education for physicians. The AMA designates this journal-based CME activity for a maximum of 1 AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM per course. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity. Physicians who complete the CME course and score at least 80% correct on the quiz are eligible for AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM.
Note: You must get at least of the answers correct to pass this quiz.
Please click the checkbox indicating that you have read the full article in order to submit your answers.
Your answers have been saved for later.
You have not filled in all the answers to complete this quiz
The following questions were not answered:
Sorry, you have unsuccessfully completed this CME quiz with a score of
The following questions were not answered correctly:
Commitment to Change (optional):
Indicate what change(s) you will implement in your practice, if any, based on this CME course.
Your quiz results:
The filled radio buttons indicate your responses. The preferred responses are highlighted
For CME Course: A Proposed Model for Initial Assessment and Management of Acute Heart Failure Syndromes
Indicate what changes(s) you will implement in your practice, if any, based on this CME course.


Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

0 Citations

Sign in

Purchase Options

• Buy this article
• Subscribe to the journal
• Rent this article ?

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging & repositioning the boxes below.