0
Article |

Effects of the Menstrual Cycle on Dependent Variables in Mood Disorder Research

Ellen Leibenluft, MD; Patricia L. Fiero, MA; David R. Rubinow, MD
Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1994;51(10):761-781. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.1994.03950100009002.
Text Size: A A A
Published online

The purpose of this article is to review the literature on the effects of the menstrual cycle on dependent variables in mood disorder research to inform investigators which physiological measures are likely to be significantly affected by menstrual cycle fluctuations and precisely how they might be affected. The following variables are discussed: prolactin; growth hormone; the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis (including thyrotropin, triiodothyronine, and thyroxine); the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (cortisol, corticotropin, and β-endorphin); melatonin; sleep; body temperature; and neurotransmitter activity (serotonergic and adrenergic systems). Body temperature and plasma and urinary norepinephrine vary predictably over the menstrual cycle. Prolactin and β-endorphin may have peaks in the periovulatory phase, whereas serotonin levels in platelet-poor plasma may reach a nadir at that time. Triiodothyronine, thyroxine, cortisol, and melatonin do not appear to vary systematically over the course of the menstrual cycle, whereas the data for growth hormone, thyrotropin, corticotropin, and sleep are inconclusive.

Topics

Sign In to Access Full Content

Don't have Access?

Register and get free email Table of Contents alerts, saved searches, PowerPoint downloads, CME quizzes, and more

Subscribe for full-text access to content from 1998 forward and a host of useful features

Activate your current subscription (AMA members and current subscribers)

Purchase Online Access to this article for 24 hours

Figures

Tables

References

Correspondence

CME
Meets CME requirements for:
Browse CME for all U.S. States
Accreditation Information
The American Medical Association is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education to provide continuing medical education for physicians. The AMA designates this journal-based CME activity for a maximum of 1 AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM per course. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity. Physicians who complete the CME course and score at least 80% correct on the quiz are eligible for AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM.
Note: You must get at least of the answers correct to pass this quiz.
You have not filled in all the answers to complete this quiz
The following questions were not answered:
Sorry, you have unsuccessfully completed this CME quiz with a score of
The following questions were not answered correctly:
Commitment to Change (optional):
Indicate what change(s) you will implement in your practice, if any, based on this CME course.
Your quiz results:
The filled radio buttons indicate your responses. The preferred responses are highlighted
For CME Course: A Proposed Model for Initial Assessment and Management of Acute Heart Failure Syndromes
Indicate what changes(s) you will implement in your practice, if any, based on this CME course.
NOTE:
Citing articles are presented as examples only. In non-demo SCM6 implementation, integration with CrossRef’s "Cited By" API will populate this tab (http://www.crossref.org/citedby.html).
Submit a Comment

Multimedia

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Sign In to Access Full Content

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging & repositioning the boxes below.

Jobs
brightcove.createExperiences();