0
Article |

Symptoms of Schizophrenia:  Methods, Meanings, and Mechanisms

Nancy C. Andreasen, MD, PhD; Stephan Arndt, PhD; Randall Alliger, PhD; Del Miller, PharmD, MD; Michael Flaum, MD
Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1995;52(5):341-351. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.1995.03950170015003.
Text Size: A A A
Published online

Background:  The "group of schizophrenias," normally referred to with a single nominative, is phenomenologically heterogeneous. Its symptoms represent multiple psychological domains, including perception, inferential thinking, language, attention, social interaction, emotion expression, and volition. Studies of psychopathology have simplified this complex array in several ways, one of which is a subdivision into positive and negative symptoms.

Methods:  This study examined the positive vs negative distinction in a sample of 243 patients with schizophrenia or schizophreniform disorder who were evaluated with the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms and the Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms. A two-stage factor analysis was applied, beginning with a principal components analysis applying varimax rotation, followed by an extension analysis. The purpose of these analyses was to evaluate the correlational relationships of the various symptoms of schizophrenia.

Results:  The results confirmed previous reports by our group and others suggesting that the symptoms of schizophrenia fall into three natural dimensions, as assessed by the correlational interrelationships: positive symptoms subdivide into psychotic and disorganized dimensions, while a third negative dimension also emerges.

Conclusion:  Because these dimensions have impressive consistency across studies, future work must examine their relationship to clinically relevant concepts such as prognosis or etiology and examine four different aspects: longitudinal course, neural mechanisms, relationship to treatment, and interrelationships in other pathological conditions.

Topics

Sign In to Access Full Content

Don't have Access?

Register and get free email Table of Contents alerts, saved searches, PowerPoint downloads, CME quizzes, and more

Subscribe for full-text access to content from 1998 forward and a host of useful features

Activate your current subscription (AMA members and current subscribers)

Purchase Online Access to this article for 24 hours

Figures

Tables

References

Correspondence

CME
Meets CME requirements for:
Browse CME for all U.S. States
Accreditation Information
The American Medical Association is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education to provide continuing medical education for physicians. The AMA designates this journal-based CME activity for a maximum of 1 AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM per course. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity. Physicians who complete the CME course and score at least 80% correct on the quiz are eligible for AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM.
Note: You must get at least of the answers correct to pass this quiz.
You have not filled in all the answers to complete this quiz
The following questions were not answered:
Sorry, you have unsuccessfully completed this CME quiz with a score of
The following questions were not answered correctly:
Commitment to Change (optional):
Indicate what change(s) you will implement in your practice, if any, based on this CME course.
Your quiz results:
The filled radio buttons indicate your responses. The preferred responses are highlighted
For CME Course: A Proposed Model for Initial Assessment and Management of Acute Heart Failure Syndromes
Indicate what changes(s) you will implement in your practice, if any, based on this CME course.
NOTE:
Citing articles are presented as examples only. In non-demo SCM6 implementation, integration with CrossRef’s "Cited By" API will populate this tab (http://www.crossref.org/citedby.html).
Submit a Comment

Multimedia

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Sign In to Access Full Content

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging & repositioning the boxes below.

Jobs
brightcove.createExperiences();