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Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorders, Anxiety, and Depressions: Vulnerability Traits or Comorbidity

Uriel Halbreich, MD
Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1995;52(7):606. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.1995.03950190088013.
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An association between premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PDD) (or premenstrual syndrome [PMS]) and major depressive disorder (MDD) has been demonstrated by several groups.1 Various biological factors that have been shown to be abnormal in patients with MDD were also reported to be abnormal in women with dysphoric PMS,2,3 and several antidepressants have been shown to be effective for the treatment of PMS. However, women with PMS also have been reported to be more sensitive to develop anxiety symptoms in response to lactate infusions4 and carbon dioxide inhalation5—stimuli that were reported to distinguish patients with panic disorders. Now, increased sensitivity of women with PDD to the panicogenic compound cholecystokinin-tetrapeptide is reported by Le Melledo et al in their letter above.

Levels of some of the variables that are abnormal in patients with MDD fluctuate along the menstrual cycles,6 but it is of importance that some variables


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