We're unable to sign you in at this time. Please try again in a few minutes.
We were able to sign you in, but your subscription(s) could not be found. Please try again in a few minutes.
There may be a problem with your account. Please contact the AMA Service Center to resolve this issue.
Contact the AMA Service Center:
Telephone: 1 (800) 262-2350 or 1 (312) 670-7827  *   Email: subscriptions@jamanetwork.com
Error Message ......
Article |

Role-Relationship Models for Case Formulation

Mardi J. Horowitz, MD; Tracy Eells, PhD; Jerome Singer, PhD; Peter Salovey, PhD
Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1995;52(8):625-632. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.1995.03950200015003.
Text Size: A A A
Published online


Background:  Personality disorders are important because they occur frequently and often complicate psychiatric symptom disorders. They are difficult to diagnose and formulate because unitary core traits and themes are hard to define for individual patients. A multipleselves approach helps clinicians define core contradictions in belief that are frequently present.

Method:  A configurational system for case formulation was used with an approach of states and person schemas. Transactions and stories involving self and others were observed for recurrent elements of identity, attribution, and action. These elements were systematically arranged as role relationship models for each important state of behavior. Cyclic repetitions of maladaptive interpersonal behavior patterns were then explained in terms of motivations and social events that activate enduring, but erroneous, beliefs.

Results:  Reliable and valid individualized formulations were derived by means of configurations of role relationship models. Inferring several levels of diverse self and other beliefs clarified the complexity usually found in disorders of personality.

Conclusions:  The role relationship models method of formulation is compatible with integrative approaches to treatment planning.


Sign in

Purchase Options

• Buy this article
• Subscribe to the journal
• Rent this article ?





Also Meets CME requirements for:
Browse CME for all U.S. States
Accreditation Information
The American Medical Association is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education to provide continuing medical education for physicians. The AMA designates this journal-based CME activity for a maximum of 1 AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM per course. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity. Physicians who complete the CME course and score at least 80% correct on the quiz are eligible for AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM.
Note: You must get at least of the answers correct to pass this quiz.
Please click the checkbox indicating that you have read the full article in order to submit your answers.
Your answers have been saved for later.
You have not filled in all the answers to complete this quiz
The following questions were not answered:
Sorry, you have unsuccessfully completed this CME quiz with a score of
The following questions were not answered correctly:
Commitment to Change (optional):
Indicate what change(s) you will implement in your practice, if any, based on this CME course.
Your quiz results:
The filled radio buttons indicate your responses. The preferred responses are highlighted
For CME Course: A Proposed Model for Initial Assessment and Management of Acute Heart Failure Syndromes
Indicate what changes(s) you will implement in your practice, if any, based on this CME course.


Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

0 Citations

Sign in

Purchase Options

• Buy this article
• Subscribe to the journal
• Rent this article ?

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging & repositioning the boxes below.