Psychotropic medications were ascertained based on generic names. Up to 6 medications were recorded in each visit in NAMCS 1996-2002. Starting from 2003, the maximum number of medications recorded was increased to 8. To make the years comparable for this study, we limited the maximum number of medications to 6 in all years. We focused on the 4 major classes of psychotropic medications for adults: antidepressants, antipsychotics, mood stabilizers, and sedative-hypnotics. Antidepressants included amitriptyline hydrochloride, amoxapine, bupropion, citalopram, clomipramine hydrochloride, desipramine hydrochloride, doxepin hydrochloride, duloxetine hydrochloride, escitalopram oxalate, fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, imipramine, isocarboxazid, maprotiline, mirtazapine, nefazodone hydrochloride, nortriptyline hydrochloride, paroxetine hydrochloride, phenelzine sulfate, protriptyline hydrochloride, sertraline hydrochloride, tranylcypromine sulfate, trazodone hydrochloride, trimipramine, and venlafaxine hydrochloride. Antipsychotics included aripiprazole, chlorpromazine hydrochloride, clozapine, fluphenazine, haloperidol, loxapine, mesoridazine, molindone hydrochloride, olanzapine, perphenazine, pimozide, quetiapine fumarate, risperidone, thioridazine, thiothixene, trifluperazine hydrochloride, and ziprasidone hydrochloride. Mood stabilizers included carbamazepine, lamotrigine, lithium, and valproate sodium/divalproex sodium. Sedative-hypnotics included alprazolam, butabarbital, chlordiazepoxide, chloral hydrate, chlorazepate, clonazepam, diazepam, diphenhydramine, eszopiclone, estazolam, flurazepam hydrochloride, hydroxyzine, lorazepam, meprobamate, nitrazepam, oxazepam, phenobarbital, secobarbital, temazepam, triazolam, zaleplon, and zolpidem tartrate.