Sociodemographic characteristics included age, sex, race (white, black), site (Pittsburgh, Memphis), and education (less than high school, high school, postsecondary education). We also assessed lifestyle characteristics known to be related to both abdominal obesity and depression: smoking status (nonsmoker, former, or current), current alcohol consumption (0-1 vs ≥2 drinks per day), and physical activity (sum of weight training, high- and medium-intensity exercise, aerobic dance, [exercise] walking, and stair climbing [in kilocalories per week]). Presence of baseline diabetes and CVD (including stroke or transient ischemic attack, myocardial infarction, angina pectoris, percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty, or coronary artery bypass grafting) were adjudicated using standardized algorithms considering various sources of information: self-report, medication use, oral glucose tolerance testing, and medical claims data from the former Health Care Financing Administration. The number of other chronic diseases was mainly based on self-report and included congestive heart failure, peripheral arterial disease, cancer, lung disease, osteoarthritis, osteoporosis, gastrointestinal disease, prostate disease, thyroid disease, Parkinson disease, and kidney disease. In addition, all medications regularly taken in the 2 weeks before baseline were recorded and coded according to the Iowa Drug Information System (IDIS).29 From this inventory, the total number of prescription medications taken was calculated. In addition, use of antidepressant medication was ascertained, which included monoamine oxidase inhibitors (IDIS code 281605), tricyclic or tetracyclic antidepressants (IDIS code 281606), selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (IDIS code 281607), and other antidepressants (IDIS code 281604), regardless of reason. Other psychoactive medication included antipsychotic (phenothiazines, IDIS code 281609; butyrophenones, IDIS code 282610; other, IDIS code 281608) and anxiolytic (benzodiazepines, barbiturates, other, IDIS code 2824) medication.