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Editorial 
Tor D. Wager, PhD; Peter J. Gianaros, PhD
Social discrimination can have pervasive effects on human health and performance. This notion is a major thread binding together findings in social psychology, health psychology, and epidemiology. From a psychiatric perspective, it may also be critical for a more complete etiological picture of psychopathology. Social influences can be subtle but ...
Original Investigation 
Ceren Akdeniz, MSc; Heike Tost, MD, PhD; Fabian Streit, MSc; Leila Haddad, MSc; Stefan Wüst, PhD; Axel Schäfer, PhD; Michael Schneider, MD; Marcella Rietschel, MD, PhD; Peter Kirsch, PhD; Andreas Meyer-Lindenberg, MD, PhD
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  Relative risk for the brain disorder schizophrenia is more than doubled in ethnic minorities, an effect that is evident across countries and linked to socially relevant cues such as skin color, making ethnic minority status a well-established social environmental risk factor. Pathoepidemiological models propose a role ...

Original Investigation 
Adriana Feder, MD; Michael K. Parides, PhD; James W. Murrough, MD; Andrew M. Perez, MD; Julia E. Morgan, BA; Shireen Saxena, MScPH; Katherine Kirkwood, MS; Marije aan het Rot, PhD; Kyle A. B. Lapidus, MD, PhD; Le-Ben Wan, MD, PhD; Dan Iosifescu, MD; Dennis S. Charney, MD
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  Few pharmacotherapies have demonstrated sufficient efficacy in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), a chronic and disabling condition.

Objective  To test the efficacy and safety of a single intravenous subanesthetic dose of ketamine for the treatment of PTSD and associated depressive symptoms in patients ...

Original Investigation 
Inna Fishman, PhD; Christopher L. Keown, MS; Alan J. Lincoln, PhD; Jaime A. Pineda, PhD; Ralph-Axel Müller, PhD
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  Converging evidence indicates that brain abnormalities in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) involve atypical network connectivity, but it is unclear whether altered connectivity is especially prominent in brain networks that participate in social cognition.

Objective  To investigate whether adolescents with ASD show altered functional connectivity in ...

Original Investigation 
Dwight Dickinson, PhD; Richard E. Straub, PhD; Joey W. Trampush, PhD; Yuan Gao, PhD; Ningping Feng, PhD; Bin Xie, PhD; Joo Heon Shin, PhD; Hun Ki Lim, PhD; Gianluca Ursini, MD; Kristin L. Bigos, PhD; Bhaskar Kolachana, PhD; Ryota Hashimoto, MD; Masatoshi Takeda, MD; Graham L. Baum, BS; Dan Rujescu, MD; Joseph H. Callicott, MD; Thomas M. Hyde, MD, PhD; Karen F. Berman, MD; Joel E. Kleinman, MD, PhD; Daniel R. Weinberger, MD
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  One approach to understanding the genetic complexity of schizophrenia is to study associated behavioral and biological phenotypes that may be more directly linked to genetic variation.

Objective  To identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms associated with general cognitive ability (g) in people with schizophrenia and control ...

Original Investigation 
John I. Nurnberger Jr, MD, PhD; Daniel L. Koller, PhD; Jeesun Jung, PhD; Howard J. Edenberg, PhD; Tatiana Foroud, PhD; Ilaria Guella, PhD; Marquis P. Vawter, PhD; John R. Kelsoe, MD; for the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium Bipolar Group
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  Genome-wide investigations provide systematic information regarding the neurobiology of psychiatric disorders.

Objective  To identify biological pathways that contribute to risk for bipolar disorder (BP) using genes with consistent evidence for association in multiple genome-wide association studies (GWAS).

Data Sources  Four independent data sets with ...

Original Investigation  FREE
Suzanne Goh, MD; Zhengchao Dong, PhD; Yudong Zhang, PhD; Salvatore DiMauro, MD; Bradley S. Peterson, MD
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  Impaired mitochondrial function impacts many biological processes that depend heavily on energy and metabolism and can lead to a wide range of neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Although evidence that mitochondrial dysfunction is a biological subtype of ASD has grown in recent years, no ...

Editorial 
Donald C. Goff, MD
In this issue, Umbricht and colleagues1 reported improvement of negative symptoms of schizophrenia associated with 2 of 3 doses of the glycine transporter type 1 inhibitor bitopertin (RG1678) in a phase 2 placebo-controlled, 8-week add-on trial. Although the therapeutic effect was only modest, this is very welcome news because the ...
Original Investigation 
Daniel Umbricht, MD; Daniela Alberati, PhD; Meret Martin-Facklam, PhD; Edilio Borroni, PhD; Eriene A. Youssef, PharmD; Michael Ostland, PhD; Tanya L. Wallace, PhD; Frédéric Knoflach, PhD; Ernest Dorflinger, MD; Joseph G. Wettstein, PhD; Alexander Bausch, PhD; George Garibaldi, MD; Luca Santarelli, MD
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  In schizophrenia, the severity of negative symptoms is a key predictor of long-term disability. Deficient signaling through the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor is hypothesized to underlie many signs and symptoms associated with schizophrenia in particular negative symptoms. Glycine acts as an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor coagonist. Blockade of ...

Viewpoint 
Andres Barkil-Oteo, MD, MSc; David A. Stern, MD; Melissa R. Arbuckle, MD, PhD
The escalating cost of health care in the United States has been described as an unsustainable crisis. This high cost does not always translate into better outcomes. Financial expenditures frequently outweigh the clinical benefits, resulting in low-value care.
Neuroscience and Psychiatry 
Klaus-Armin Nave, PhD; Hannelore Ehrenreich, MD
The evolution of the human brain is marked not only by a major expansion of the neocortex but also by an enormous increase of the subcortical white matter. White matter tracts comprise the axonal output of some 1010 cortical projection neurons, which constitute a giant cellular network, recently referred to ...
Original Investigation 
Leah M. Lozier, BS; Elise M. Cardinale, BA; John W. VanMeter, PhD; Abigail A. Marsh, PhD
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  Among youths with conduct problems, callous-unemotional (CU) traits are known to be an important determinant of symptom severity, prognosis, and treatment responsiveness. But positive correlations between conduct problems and CU traits result in suppressor effects that may mask important neurobiological distinctions among subgroups of children with ...

Original Investigation 
David H. Gustafson, PhD; Fiona M. McTavish, MS; Ming-Yuan Chih, PhD; Amy K. Atwood, PhD; Roberta A. Johnson, MA, MEd; Michael G. Boyle, MA; Michael S. Levy, PhD; Hilary Driscoll, MA; Steven M. Chisholm, MA; Lisa Dillenburg, MSW; Andrew Isham, MS; Dhavan Shah, PhD
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  Patients leaving residential treatment for alcohol use disorders are not typically offered evidence-based continuing care, although research suggests that continuing care is associated with better outcomes. A smartphone-based application could provide effective continuing care.

Objective  To determine whether patients leaving residential treatment for alcohol use ...

Original Investigation 
Carsten Bøcker Pedersen, DrMedSc; Ole Mors, PhD; Aksel Bertelsen, MD; Berit Lindum Waltoft, MSc; Esben Agerbo, DrMedSc; John J. McGrath, MD; Preben Bo Mortensen, DrMedSc; William W. Eaton, PhD
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  Understanding the epidemiologic profile of the life course of mental disorders is fundamental for research and planning for health care. Although previous studies have used population surveys, informative and complementary estimates can be derived from population-based registers.

Objective  To derive comprehensive and precise estimates of ...

Original Investigation 
Margarita Alegría, PhD; Nicholas Carson, MD, FRCPC; Michael Flores, MPH; Xinliang Li, MA; Ping Shi, PhD; Anna Sophia Lessios, BA; Antonio Polo, PhD; Michele Allen, MD; Mary Fierro, PhD; Alejandro Interian, PhD; Aida Jimenez, PhD; Martin La Roche, PhD; Catherine Lee, MD; Roberto Lewis-Fernández, MD; Gabriela Livas-Stein, PhD; Laura Safar, MD; Catherine Schuman, PhD; Joan Storey, PhD; Patrick E. Shrout, PhD
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  Given minority patients’ unequal access to quality care, patient activation and self-management strategies have been suggested as a promising approach to improving mental health care.

Objective  To determine whether the DECIDE (Decide the problem; Explore the questions; Closed or open-ended questions; Identify the who, why, ...

Original Investigation 
Sarah Bowen, PhD; Katie Witkiewitz, PhD; Seema L. Clifasefi, PhD; Joel Grow, PhD; Neharika Chawla, PhD; Sharon H. Hsu, MS; Haley A. Carroll, BS; Erin Harrop, BS; Susan E. Collins, PhD; M. Kathleen Lustyk, PhD; Mary E. Larimer, PhD

Importance  Relapse is highly prevalent following substance abuse treatments, highlighting the need for improved aftercare interventions. Mindfulness-based relapse prevention (MBRP), a group-based psychosocial aftercare, integrates evidence-based practices from mindfulness-based interventions and cognitive-behavioral relapse prevention (RP) approaches.

Objective  To evaluate the long-term efficacy of MBRP in reducing ...

Original Investigation 
Amy L. Byers, PhD, MPH; Kenneth E. Covinsky, MD, MPH; Thomas C. Neylan, MD; Kristine Yaffe, MD

Importance  Little is known about the association between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and disability into later life. Most studies of late-life psychiatric disorders and function have focused on depression and generalized anxiety disorder.

Objectives  To determine the association between PTSD and disability among older adults and ...

In this issue of the journal, Lerman et al1 report on a new composite measurement, the resource allocation index (RAI), which represents the relative strength of interactions during the resting state between the 3 major brain networks: the “default mode” network (DMN), the “executive control” network (ECN), and the “salience” ...
Editorial 
Guillermo Horga, MD; Anissa Abi-Dargham, MD
Neurobiological phenotypes of schizophrenia can be strategically studied in unaffected relatives to parse out susceptibility phenotypes involved in core pathophysiological mechanisms from phenotypes reflecting consequences of the illness or its treatments. A prime example of this strategy is the work by Grimm et al1 in the current issue of JAMA ...
Original Investigation 
Caryn Lerman, PhD; Hong Gu, PhD; James Loughead, PhD; Kosha Ruparel, MSE; Yihong Yang, PhD; Elliot A. Stein, PhD

Importance  Interactions of large-scale brain networks may underlie cognitive dysfunctions in psychiatric and addictive disorders.

Objectives  To test the hypothesis that the strength of coupling among 3 large-scale brain networks—salience, executive control, and default mode—will reflect the state of nicotine withdrawal (vs smoking satiety) and will ...

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