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 Showing 1-14 of 14 Articles
Original Investigation 
Martin Gevonden, MSc; Jan Booij, PhD, MD; Wim van den Brink, PhD, MD; Dennis Heijtel, MSc; Jim van Os, PhD, MD; Jean-Paul Selten, PhD, MD
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  An increased risk for psychosis is observed in people with hearing impairment. According to the social defeat hypothesis, the long-term experience of exclusion leads to enhanced baseline activity and/or sensitization of the dopamine system and puts the individual at increased risk for psychosis.

Objective  To ...

Original Investigation 
Glenn T. Konopaske, MD; Nicholas Lange, DSc; Joseph T. Coyle, MD; Francine M. Benes, MD, PhD
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  Prior studies have demonstrated reduced dendritic spine density in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in schizophrenia. However, it remains unclear how generalizable this finding is in schizophrenia and if it is seen in bipolar disorder, a historically distinct psychiatric condition.

Objective  To assess whether spine ...

Viewpoint 
Kenneth S. Kendler, MD; Michael C. O'Donovan, MD
This Viewpoint discusses lessons learned from a recent article from the Schizophrenia Working Group of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium on 108 schizophrenia-associated genetic loci.
Original Investigation 
W. Stewart Agras, MD; James Lock, MD, PhD; Harry Brandt, MD; Susan W. Bryson, MA, MS; Elizabeth Dodge, MSc; Katherine A. Halmi, MD; Booil Jo, PhD; Craig Johnson, PhD; Walter Kaye, MD; Denise Wilfley, PhD; Blake Woodside, MD

Importance  Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a serious disorder with high rates of morbidity and mortality. Family-based treatment (FBT) is an evidence-based therapy for adolescent AN, but less than half of those who receive this approach recover. Hence, it is important to identify other approaches to prevent the ...

Original Investigation 
M. Katherine Shear, MD; Yuanjia Wang, PhD; Natalia Skritskaya, PhD; Naihua Duan, PhD; Christine Mauro, MS; Angela Ghesquiere, PhD
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  Complicated grief (CG) is a debilitating condition, most prevalent in elderly persons. However, to our knowledge, no full-scale randomized clinical trial has studied CG in this population.

Objective  To determine whether complicated grief treatment (CGT) produces greater improvement in CG and depressive symptoms than grief-focused ...

Original Investigation 
Susan M. Mason, PhD; Alan J. Flint, DPH, MD; Andrea L. Roberts, PhD; Jessica Agnew-Blais, MS; Karestan C. Koenen, PhD; Janet W. Rich-Edwards, ScD
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) appears to increase obesity risk but the pathways by which PTSD leads to weight gain are not known. Identification of the links between PTSD and obesogenic eating behaviors is necessary to clarify this pathway and inform development of obesity prevention strategies in ...

Original Investigation 
Martin Grosshans, MD; Emanuel Schwarz, PhD; Jan Malte Bumb, MD; Carola Schaefer, MPharm; Cathrin Rohleder, PhD; Christian Vollmert, MD; Sabine Vollstädt-Klein, PhD; Heike Tost, MD, PhD; Andreas Meyer-Lindenberg, MD, PhD; Falk Kiefer, MD; F. Markus Leweke, MD

Importance  Obesity has emerged as a leading health threat but its biological basis remains insufficiently known, hampering the search for novel treatments. Here, we study oleoylethanolamide, a naturally occurring lipid that has been clearly implicated in weight regulation in animals. However, its role for weight regulation and ...

Original Investigation 
Robert H. Pietrzak, PhD, MPH; Mika Naganawa, PhD; Yiyun Huang, PhD; Stefani Corsi-Travali, BA; Ming-Qiang Zheng, PhD; Murray B. Stein, MD, MPH; Shannan Henry, BA; Keunpoong Lim, PhD; Jim Ropchan, BS; Shu-fei Lin, PhD; Richard E. Carson, PhD; Alexander Neumeister, MD

Importance  Exposure to trauma increases the risk for developing threat (ie, fear) symptoms, such as reexperiencing and hyperarousal symptoms, and loss (ie, dysphoria) symptoms, such as emotional numbing and depressive symptoms. While preclinical data have implicated the activated dynorphin/κ-opioid receptor (KOR) system in relation to these symptoms, ...

Original Investigation 
Michele L. Pergadia, PhD; Andre Der-Avakian, PhD; Manoranjan S. D’Souza, MD, PhD; Pamela A. F. Madden, PhD; Andrew C. Heath, DPhil; Saul Shiffman, PhD; Athina Markou, PhD; Diego A. Pizzagalli, PhD
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  Reward-related disturbances after withdrawal from nicotine are hypothesized to contribute to relapse to tobacco smoking but mechanisms underlying and linking such processes remain largely unknown.

Objective  To determine whether withdrawal from nicotine affects reward responsiveness (ie, the propensity to modulate behavior as a function of ...

Original Investigation 
Benjamin Vyssoki, MD; Nestor D. Kapusta, MD, PhD; Nicole Praschak-Rieder, MD, PhD; Georg Dorffner, PhD; Matthaeus Willeit, MD, PhD
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  It has been observed that suicidal behavior is influenced by sunshine and follows a seasonal pattern. However, seasons bring about changes in several other meteorological factors and a seasonal rhythm in social behavior may also contribute to fluctuations in suicide rates.

Objective  To investigate the ...

Topics: sunlight; suicide
Original Investigation 
Carlos Blanco, MD, PhD; Mayumi Okuda, MD; Shuai Wang, PhD; Shang-Min Liu, MS; Mark Olfson, MD, MPH

Importance  Adults who remit from a substance use disorder (SUD) are often thought to be at increased risk for developing another SUD. A greater understanding of the prevalence and risk factors for drug substitution would inform clinical monitoring and management.

Objective  To determine whether remission from ...

Neuroscience and Psychiatry 
Patrick Long, PhD; Gabriel Corfas, PhD
Since its initial discovery in the 1800s until recently, myelin was considered a simple insulator for axons, and its formation was believed to be regulated by predetermined biochemical and cellular processes. Moreover, both oligodendrocytes and the myelin they generate were considered to be static components of the nervous system. However, ...
Original Investigation 
Sandra M. Meier, PhD; Liselotte Petersen, PhD; Marianne G. Pedersen, MSc; Mikkel C. B. Arendt, PhD; Philip R. Nielsen, PhD, MSc; Manuel Mattheisen, MD; Ole Mors, MD, PhD; Preben B. Mortensen, DrMedSc
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  Despite a remarkable co-occurrence of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and schizophrenia, little is known about the clinical and etiological relationship of these 2 disorders. Exploring the degree to which these disorders share etiological factors might provide useful implications for clinicians, researchers, and those with the disorders.

Objectives...

Original Investigation 
Ronny Redlich, MA; Jorge J. R. Almeida, MD, PhD; Dominik Grotegerd, MSc; Nils Opel; Harald Kugel, PhD; Walter Heindel, MD; Volker Arolt, MD, PhD; Mary L. Phillips, MD, MD(Cantab); Udo Dannlowski, MD, PhD
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  The structural abnormalities in the brain that accurately differentiate unipolar depression (UD) and bipolar depression (BD) remain unidentified.

Objectives  First, to investigate and compare morphometric changes in UD and BD, and to replicate the findings at 2 independent neuroimaging sites; second, to differentiate UD and ...

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