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 Showing 1-20 of 25 Articles
Original Investigation 
Israel Liberzon, MD; Anthony P. King, PhD; Kerry J. Ressler, MD, PhD; Lynn M. Almli, PhD; Peng Zhang, PhD; Sean T. Ma, PhD; Gregory H. Cohen, MPH; Marijo B. Tamburrino, MD; Joseph R. Calabrese, MD; Sandro Galea, MD, MPH
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), while highly prevalent (7.6% over a lifetime), develops only in a subset of trauma-exposed individuals. Genetic risk factors in interaction with trauma exposure have been implicated in PTSD vulnerability.

Objective  To examine the association of 3755 candidate gene single-nucleotide polymorphisms with ...

Original Investigation 
Ronald Lautner, MD; Sebastian Palmqvist, MD, PhD; Niklas Mattsson, MD, PhD; Ulf Andreasson, PhD; Anders Wallin, MD, PhD; Erik Pålsson, PhD; Joel Jakobsson, PhD; Sanna-Kaisa Herukka, BM, MSc, PhD; Rikard Owenius, PhD; Bob Olsson, PhD; Harald Hampel, MD; Dan Rujescu, MD, PhD; Michael Ewers, PhD; Mikael Landén, MD, PhD; Lennart Minthon, MD, PhD; Kaj Blennow, MD, PhD; Henrik Zetterberg, MD, PhD; Oskar Hansson, MD, PhD; for the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  Several studies suggest that the apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 allele modulates cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of β-amyloid 42 (Aβ42). Whether this effect is secondary to the association of the APOE ε4 allele with cortical Aβ deposition or whether APOE ε4 directly influences CSF levels ...

Original Investigation 
Ran Tao, PhD; Helena Cousijn, DPhil; Andrew E. Jaffe, PhD; Philip W. J. Burnet, PhD; Freya Edwards, BA; Sharon L. Eastwood, DPhil; Joo Heon Shin, PhD; Tracy A. Lane, PhD; Mary A. Walker; Brady J. Maher, PhD; Daniel R. Weinberger, MD; Paul J. Harrison, DM, FRCPsych; Thomas M. Hyde, MD, PhD; Joel E. Kleinman, MD, PhD
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  The single-nucleotide polymorphism rs1344706 in the zinc finger protein 804A gene (ZNF804A) shows genome-wide association with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Little is known regarding the expression of ZNF804A and the functionality of rs1344706.

Objectives  To characterize ZNF804A expression in human brain and to ...

The article by Hollon and colleagues1 in this issue of JAMA Psychiatry describes the main findings of one of the most important studies ever undertaken to evaluate the merits of combining psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy for treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD). This randomized clinical trial (RCT) compared the outcomes of ...
Original Investigation 
Manpreet K. Singh, MD, MS; Ryan G. Kelley, BS; Meghan E. Howe, MSW; Allan L. Reiss, MD; Ian H. Gotlib, PhD; Kiki D. Chang, MD
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  Bipolar disorder (BD) is highly familial and characterized by deficits in reward processing. It is not known, however, whether these deficits precede illness onset or are a consequence of the disorder.

Objective  To determine whether anomalous neural processing of reward characterizes children at familial risk ...

Original Investigation 
Steven D. Hollon, PhD; Robert J. DeRubeis, PhD; Jan Fawcett, MD; Jay D. Amsterdam, MD; Richard C. Shelton, MD; John Zajecka, MD; Paula R. Young, PhD; Robert Gallop, PhD

Importance  Antidepressant medication (ADM) is efficacious in the treatment of depression, but not all patients achieve remission and fewer still achieve recovery with ADM alone.

Objective  To determine the effects of combining cognitive therapy (CT) with ADM vs ADM alone on remission and recovery in major ...

Original Investigation 
Tobias U. Hauser, PhD; Reto Iannaccone, MS; Juliane Ball, PhD; Christoph Mathys, PhD; Daniel Brandeis, PhD; Susanne Walitza, MD; Silvia Brem, PhD
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been associated with deficient decision making and learning. Models of ADHD have suggested that these deficits could be caused by impaired reward prediction errors (RPEs). Reward prediction errors are signals that indicate violations of expectations and are known to be encoded by ...

Original Investigation 
Kathryn R. Cullen, MD; Melinda K. Westlund, BA; Bonnie Klimes-Dougan, PhD; Bryon A. Mueller, PhD; Alaa Houri, BS; Lynn E. Eberly, PhD; Kelvin O. Lim, MD
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  Major depressive disorder (MDD) frequently emerges during adolescence and can lead to persistent illness, disability, and suicide. The maturational changes that take place in the brain during adolescence underscore the importance of examining neurobiological mechanisms during this time of early illness. However, neural mechanisms of depression ...

Original Investigation  FREE
Rebecca A. Bernert, PhD; Carolyn L. Turvey, PhD; Yeates Conwell, MD; Thomas E. Joiner Jr, PhD

Importance  Older adults have high rates of sleep disturbance, die by suicide at disproportionately higher rates compared with other age groups, and tend to visit their physician in the weeks preceding suicide death. To our knowledge, to date, no study has examined disturbed sleep as an independent ...

Original Investigation 
Golam M. Khandaker, PhD; Rebecca M. Pearson, PhD; Stanley Zammit, PhD; Glyn Lewis, PhD; Peter B. Jones, PhD
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  Longitudinal studies have linked the systemic inflammatory markers interleukin 6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP) with the risk of developing heart disease and diabetes mellitus, which are common comorbidities for depression and psychosis. Recent meta-analyses of cross-sectional studies have reported increased serum levels of these inflammatory ...

Neuroscience and Psychiatry 
Peter Sterling, PhD
Most drugs that alter mental function, whether for recreational purposes or to treat mental disorders, affect synaptic transmission. Some drugs reshape the action potential, altering release of neurotransmitter; others antagonize or enhance the effect of a neurotransmitter on its synaptic receptor protein. Still other drugs inhibit reuptake of the neurotransmitter ...
Original Investigation 
Steffen Moritz, PhD; Ruth Veckenstedt, PhD; Christina Andreou, MD, PhD; Francesca Bohn, MSc; Birgit Hottenrott, Dipl-Psych; Lucy Leighton, MSc; Ulf Köther, Dipl-Psych; Todd S. Woodward, PhD; András Treszl, MD; Mahesh Menon, PhD; Brooke C. Schneider, PhD; Ute Pfueller, PhD; Daniela Roesch-Ely, MD

Importance  Cognitive interventions increasingly complement psychopharmacological treatment to enhance symptomatic and functional outcome in schizophrenia. Metacognitive training (MCT) is targeted at cognitive biases involved in the pathogenesis of delusions.

Objective  To examine the long-term efficacy of group MCT for schizophrenia in order to explore whether previously ...

Viewpoint 
Peter J. Hotez, MD, PhD
A group of neglected infections are emerging as important causes of psychiatric and mental illness among vulnerable populations living in extreme poverty in the United States. These chronic infections may partially account for the achievement gap noted among socioeconomically disadvantaged students.
Topics: infection; brain; poverty
Editorial 
Jim van Os, MD, PhD
Zavos and colleagues1 present a twin study showing that individual psychotic experiences (PE) (eg, paranoia, hallucinations, and grandiosity) in the general population display heritabilities that lie between those of depression (40%) and schizophrenia (60%). More important, the same genetic and environmental influences appear to drive variation across the spectrum of ...
Editorial 
Richard S. E. Keefe, PhD
In this issue of JAMA Psychiatry, Fervaha and colleagues1 use the publicly available database derived from 1331 patients with cognitive data in the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness (CATIE) schizophrenia trial to explore the relationship between cognitive impairment and behaviors referred to as “amotivational.” The authors report correlations of ...
Original Investigation 
Helena M. S. Zavos, PhD; Daniel Freeman, PhD, DClinPsy; Claire M. A. Haworth, PhD; Philip McGuire, PhD, FRCPsych; Robert Plomin, PhD; Alastair G. Cardno, PhD, MRCPsych; Angelica Ronald, PhD
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  The onset of psychosis is usually preceded by psychotic experiences (PE). Little is known about the etiology of PE and whether the degree of genetic and environmental influences varies across different levels of severity. A recognized challenge is to identify individuals at high risk of developing ...

Original Investigation 
Gagan Fervaha, BSc; Konstantine K. Zakzanis, PhD; George Foussias, MD, PhD; Ariel Graff-Guerrero, MD, PhD; Ofer Agid, MD; Gary Remington, MD, PhD
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  Motivational and cognitive deficits are core features of schizophrenia, both closely linked with functional outcomes. Although poor effort and decreased motivation are known to affect performance on cognitive tests, the extent of this relationship is unclear in patients with schizophrenia.

Objective  To evaluate the association ...

Original Investigation 
John R. Blosnich, PhD, MPH; Melissa E. Dichter, PhD, MSW; Catherine Cerulli, PhD, JD; Sonja V. Batten, PhD; Robert M. Bossarte, PhD

Importance  Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are associated with several adulthood health problems, such as self-directed violence. For some individuals, enlistment in the military may be an instrumental act to escape adverse household environments; however, to our knowledge prevalence of ACEs among persons with a history of military ...

Original Investigation 
Antonio C. Lopes, MD, PhD; Benjamin D. Greenberg, MD, PhD; Miguel M. Canteras, MD; Marcelo C. Batistuzzo, PsyD; Marcelo Q. Hoexter, MD, PhD; André F. Gentil, MD; Carlos A. B. Pereira, PhD; Marinês A. Joaquim, RN; Maria E. de Mathis, PsyD; Carina C. D’Alcante, PsyD, MSc; Anita Taub, PsyD, MSc; Douglas G. de Castro, MD; Lucas Tokeshi, MD; Leonardo A. N. P. C. Sampaio, MD; Cláudia C. Leite, MD, PhD; Roseli G. Shavitt, MD, PhD; Juliana B. Diniz, MD, PhD; Geraldo Busatto, MD, PhD; Georg Norén, MD, PhD; Steven A. Rasmussen, MD, PhD; Eurípedes C. Miguel, MD, PhD
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  Select cases of intractable obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have undergone neurosurgical ablation for more than half a century. However, to our knowledge, there have been no randomized clinical trials of such procedures for the treatment of any psychiatric disorder.

Objective  To determine the efficacy and safety ...

Original Investigation 
David M. Fergusson, PhD; L. John Horwood, MSc; Joseph M. Boden, PhD; Roger T. Mulder, MB, ChB, PhD
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  There has been growing research into the mental health consequences of major disasters. Few studies have controlled for prospectively assessed mental health. This article describes a natural experiment in which 57% of a well-studied birth cohort was exposed to a major natural disaster (the Canterbury, New ...

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