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 Showing 1-20 of 24 Articles
Original Investigation 
Sophia Mueller, MD; Danhong Wang, MD; Ruiqi Pan, BS; Daphne J. Holt, MD, PhD; Hesheng Liu, PhD
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  Hemispheric specialization of the human brain is a marker of successful neurodevelopment. Altered brain asymmetry that has been repeatedly reported in schizophrenia may represent consequences of disrupted neurodevelopment in the disorder. However, a complete picture of functional specialization in the schizophrenic brain and its connectional substrates ...

Original Investigation 
Yaron Finkelstein, MD, ABCP(Dip); Erin M. Macdonald, MSc; Simon Hollands, MSc; Marco L. A. Sivilotti, MD, MSc; Janine R. Hutson, MD, PhD; Muhammad M. Mamdani, PharmD, MA, MPH; Gideon Koren, MD; David N. Juurlink, MD, PhD; for the Canadian Drug Safety and Effectiveness Research Network (CDSERN)
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  Suicide is the tenth leading cause of death in the United States, and its rate has risen by 16% in the past decade. Deliberate self-poisoning is the leading method of attempted suicide. Unlike more violent methods, which are almost universally fatal, survival following self-poisoning is common, ...

Original Investigation 
Mark A. Reger, PhD; Derek J. Smolenski, MPH, PhD; Nancy A. Skopp, PhD; Melinda J. Metzger-Abamukang, BS; Han K. Kang, DrPH; Tim A. Bullman, MA; Sondra Perdue, DrPH; Gregory A. Gahm, PhD

Importance  A pressing question in military suicide prevention research is whether deployment in support of Operation Enduring Freedom or Operation Iraqi Freedom relates to suicide risk. Prior smaller studies report differing results and often have not included suicides that occurred after separation from military service.

Objective  ...

Original Investigation  FREE
Esben Agerbo, DrMedSc; Patrick F. Sullivan, FRANZCP; Bjarni J. Vilhjálmsson, PhD; Carsten B. Pedersen, DrMedSc; Ole Mors, PhD; Anders D. Børglum, PhD; David M. Hougaard, DrMedSc; Mads V. Hollegaard, PhD; Sandra Meier, PhD; Manuel Mattheisen, PhD; Stephan Ripke, MD; Naomi R. Wray, PhD; Preben B. Mortensen, DrMedSc
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  Schizophrenia has a complex etiology influenced both by genetic and nongenetic factors but disentangling these factors is difficult.

Objective  To estimate (1) how strongly the risk for schizophrenia relates to the mutual effect of the polygenic risk score, parental socioeconomic status, and family history of ...

Comment & Response 
Vladan Starcevic, MD, PhD, FRANZCP
To the Editor In an article, Olfson et al1 reported higher rates of long-term benzodiazepine use among older adults in the United States. They assumed that benzodiazepines are prescribed to older individuals mainly for insomnia and anxiety and stated alarmingly that “most physicians do not view continuous use of benzodiazepines ...
Comment & Response 
Mark Olfson, MD, MPH; Marissa King, PhD; Michael Schoenbaum, PhD
In Reply Dr Starcevic questions whether long-term benzodiazepine use poses health risks to older adults. He suggests that for older adults, long-term use of benzodiazepines does not increase the risk for fractures, is much safer than antidepressants, and generally maintains its clinical effectiveness over time.
Original Investigation  FREE
Joris Berwaerts, MD; Yanning Liu, MS; Srihari Gopal, MD, MHS; Isaac Nuamah, PhD; Haiyan Xu, PhD; Adam Savitz, MD, PhD; Danielle Coppola, MD; Alain Schotte, PhD; Bart Remmerie, Chem Eng; Nataliya Maruta, MD, PhD; David W. Hough, MD
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  Treatment nonadherence and relapse are common problems in patients with schizophrenia. The long-acting 3-month formulation of paliperidone palmitate, owing to its extended elimination half-life, may offer a valuable therapeutic option for these patients.

Objective  To evaluate the efficacy and safety of the 3-month formulation of ...

Original Investigation 
Michaeline Bresnahan, PhD, MPH; Mady Hornig, MD; Andrew F. Schultz, MS; Nina Gunnes, PhD; Deborah Hirtz, MD; Kari Kveim Lie, MD; Per Magnus, MD, PhD; Ted Reichborn-Kjennerud, MD, PhD; Christine Roth, PhD; Synnve Schjølberg, LPsy; Camilla Stoltenberg, MD, PhD; Pål Surén, MD, MPH; Ezra Susser, MD, DrPH; W. Ian Lipkin, MD
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  Gastrointestinal (GI) comorbidities are frequently described in association with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, the prevalence of GI disturbances and the age at which such problems first appear are unclear, and their specificity for ASD compared with other neurodevelopmental disorders is uncertain.

Objective  To compare ...

Original Investigation 
Marsha M. Linehan, PhD; Kathryn E. Korslund, PhD; Melanie S. Harned, PhD; Robert J. Gallop, PhD; Anita Lungu, PhD; Andrada D. Neacsiu, PhD; Joshua McDavid, MD; Katherine Anne Comtois, PhD; Angela M. Murray-Gregory, MSW
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) is an empirically supported treatment for suicidal individuals. However, DBT consists of multiple components, including individual therapy, skills training, telephone coaching, and a therapist consultation team, and little is known about which components are needed to achieve positive outcomes.

Objective  To ...

Original Investigation 
Jean-Paul Selten, MD, PhD; Michael Lundberg, MPH; Dheeraj Rai, MRCPsych, PhD; Cecilia Magnusson, MD, PhD
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  Whether individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are at increased risk for nonaffective psychotic disorder (NAPD) or bipolar disorder (BD) is unknown.

Objective  To test whether the risks for NAPD and BD in individuals with ASD are increased and whether these risks are higher than ...

Original Investigation 
Annelieke M. Roest, PhD; Peter de Jonge, PhD; Craig D. Williams, PharmD; Ymkje Anna de Vries, MSc; Robert A. Schoevers, MD, PhD; Erick H. Turner, MD
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  Studies have shown that the scientific literature has overestimated the efficacy of antidepressants for depression, but other indications for these drugs have not been considered.

Objective  To examine reporting biases in double-blind, placebo-controlled trials on the pharmacologic treatment of anxiety disorders and quantify the extent ...

Original Investigation 
Bradley S. Peterson, MD; Virginia A. Rauh, ScD; Ravi Bansal, PhD; Xuejun Hao, PhD; Zachary Toth, BA; Giancarlo Nati, BA; Kirwan Walsh, BA; Rachel L. Miller, MD; David Semanek, BA; Frederica Perera, DrPH, PhD
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous and neurotoxic environmental contaminants. Prenatal PAH exposure is associated with subsequent cognitive and behavioral disturbances in childhood.

Objectives  To identify the effects of prenatal PAH exposure on brain structure and to assess the cognitive and behavioral correlates of those ...

Original Investigation 
Donovan T. Maust, MD, MS; Hyungjin Myra Kim, ScD; Lisa S. Seyfried, MD, MS; Claire Chiang, PhD; Janet Kavanagh, MS; Lon S. Schneider, MD, MS; Helen C. Kales, MD

Importance  Antipsychotic medications are associated with increased mortality in older adults with dementia, yet their absolute effect on risk relative to no treatment or an alternative psychotropic is unclear.

Objective  To determine the absolute mortality risk increase and number needed to harm (NNH) (ie, number of ...

Original Investigation 
Anne L. Wheeler, PhD; Michèle Wessa, PhD; Philip R. Szeszko, PhD; George Foussias, MD, MSc; M. Mallar Chakravarty, PhD; Jason P. Lerch, PhD; Pamela DeRosse, PhD; Gary Remington, MD, PhD; Benoit H. Mulsant, MD; Julia Linke, PhD; Anil K. Malhotra, MD; Aristotle N. Voineskos, MD, PhD
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  The clinical heterogeneity of schizophrenia has hindered neurobiological investigations aimed at identifying neural correlates of the disorder.

Objective  To identify network-based biomarkers across the spectrum of impairment present in schizophrenia by separately evaluating individuals with deficit and nondeficit subtypes of this disorder.

Design, Setting, and ...

Original Investigation 
Corina U. Greven, PhD; Janita Bralten, Msc; Maarten Mennes, PhD; Laurence O’Dwyer, PhD; Kimm J. E. van Hulzen, PhD; Nanda Rommelse, PhD; Lizanne J. S. Schweren, MSc; Pieter J. Hoekstra, MD, PhD; Catharina A. Hartman, PhD; Dirk Heslenfeld, PhD; Jaap Oosterlaan, PhD; Stephen V. Faraone, PhD; Barbara Franke, PhD; Marcel P. Zwiers, PhD; Alejandro Arias-Vasquez, PhD; Jan K. Buitelaar, MD, PhD
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a heritable neurodevelopmental disorder. It has been linked to reductions in total brain volume and subcortical abnormalities. However, owing to heterogeneity within and between studies and limited sample sizes, findings on the neuroanatomical substrates of ADHD have shown considerable variability. Moreover, it ...

Original Investigation 
Daniel H. Wolf, MD, PhD; Theodore D. Satterthwaite, MD, MA; Monica E. Calkins, PhD; Kosha Ruparel, MSE; Mark A. Elliott, PhD; Ryan D. Hopson, BA; Chad T. Jackson, MSE; Karthik Prabhakaran, MS; Warren B. Bilker, PhD; Hakon Hakonarson, MD, PhD; Ruben C. Gur, PhD; Raquel E. Gur, MD, PhD
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  The continuum view of the psychosis spectrum (PS) implies that, in population-based samples, PS symptoms should be associated with neural abnormalities similar to those found in help-seeking clinical risk individuals and in schizophrenia. To our knowledge, functional neuroimaging has not previously been applied in large population-based ...

Original Investigation 
Roselinde H. Kaiser, PhD; Jessica R. Andrews-Hanna, PhD; Tor D. Wager, PhD; Diego A. Pizzagalli, PhD
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  Major depressive disorder (MDD) has been linked to imbalanced communication among large-scale brain networks, as reflected by abnormal resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC). However, given variable methods and results across studies, identifying consistent patterns of network dysfunction in MDD has been elusive.

Objective  To investigate network ...

Viewpoint 
David A. Ross, MD, PhD; Michael J. Travis, MD; Melissa R. Arbuckle, MD, PhD
In 2012, Thomas Insel,1 director of the National Institute of Mental Health, wrote an essay entitled The Future of Psychiatry ( = Clinical Neuroscience), echoing a familiar trope in our field.2 The themes he described then are even more relevant today. Technologic advances have enhanced our ability to study the ...
Original Investigation 
Theodore J. Cicero, PhD; Matthew S. Ellis, MPE

Importance  In an effort to reduce wide-scale abuse of the proprietary oxycodone hydrochloride formulation OxyContin, an abuse-deterrent formulation (ADF) was introduced in 2010. Although the reformulation produced an immediate drop in abuse rates, a definite ceiling effect appeared over time, beyond which no further decrease was seen. ...

Original Investigation 
David W. Oslin, MD; Shirley H. Leong, PhD; Kevin G. Lynch, PhD; Wade Berrettini, MD, PhD; Charles P. O’Brien, MD, PhD; Adam J. Gordon, MD, MPH; Margaret Rukstalis, MD
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  Alcohol use disorder is one of the leading causes of disability worldwide. While effective pharmacological treatments exist, they are efficacious only in certain individuals, contributing to their limited use. Secondary analysis of clinical trial data suggests that a functional polymorphism (rs1799971, Asn40Asp) of the µ-opioid receptor ...

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