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 Showing 1-20 of 24 Articles
Original Investigation 
W. Stewart Agras, MD; James Lock, MD, PhD; Harry Brandt, MD; Susan W. Bryson, MA, MS; Elizabeth Dodge, MSc; Katherine A. Halmi, MD; Booil Jo, PhD; Craig Johnson, PhD; Walter Kaye, MD; Denise Wilfley, PhD; Blake Woodside, MD

Importance  Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a serious disorder with high rates of morbidity and mortality. Family-based treatment (FBT) is an evidence-based therapy for adolescent AN, but less than half of those who receive this approach recover. Hence, it is important to identify other approaches to prevent the ...

Original Investigation 
M. Katherine Shear, MD; Yuanjia Wang, PhD; Natalia Skritskaya, PhD; Naihua Duan, PhD; Christine Mauro, MS; Angela Ghesquiere, PhD
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  Complicated grief (CG) is a debilitating condition, most prevalent in elderly persons. However, to our knowledge, no full-scale randomized clinical trial has studied CG in this population.

Objective  To determine whether complicated grief treatment (CGT) produces greater improvement in CG and depressive symptoms than grief-focused ...

Original Investigation 
Susan M. Mason, PhD; Alan J. Flint, DPH, MD; Andrea L. Roberts, PhD; Jessica Agnew-Blais, MS; Karestan C. Koenen, PhD; Janet W. Rich-Edwards, ScD
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) appears to increase obesity risk but the pathways by which PTSD leads to weight gain are not known. Identification of the links between PTSD and obesogenic eating behaviors is necessary to clarify this pathway and inform development of obesity prevention strategies in ...

Original Investigation 
Martin Grosshans, MD; Emanuel Schwarz, PhD; Jan Malte Bumb, MD; Carola Schaefer, MPharm; Cathrin Rohleder, PhD; Christian Vollmert, MD; Sabine Vollstädt-Klein, PhD; Heike Tost, MD, PhD; Andreas Meyer-Lindenberg, MD, PhD; Falk Kiefer, MD; F. Markus Leweke, MD

Importance  Obesity has emerged as a leading health threat but its biological basis remains insufficiently known, hampering the search for novel treatments. Here, we study oleoylethanolamide, a naturally occurring lipid that has been clearly implicated in weight regulation in animals. However, its role for weight regulation and ...

Original Investigation 
Robert H. Pietrzak, PhD, MPH; Mika Naganawa, PhD; Yiyun Huang, PhD; Stefani Corsi-Travali, BA; Ming-Qiang Zheng, PhD; Murray B. Stein, MD, MPH; Shannan Henry, BA; Keunpoong Lim, PhD; Jim Ropchan, BS; Shu-fei Lin, PhD; Richard E. Carson, PhD; Alexander Neumeister, MD

Importance  Exposure to trauma increases the risk for developing threat (ie, fear) symptoms, such as reexperiencing and hyperarousal symptoms, and loss (ie, dysphoria) symptoms, such as emotional numbing and depressive symptoms. While preclinical data have implicated the activated dynorphin/κ-opioid receptor (KOR) system in relation to these symptoms, ...

Original Investigation 
Michele L. Pergadia, PhD; Andre Der-Avakian, PhD; Manoranjan S. D’Souza, MD, PhD; Pamela A. F. Madden, PhD; Andrew C. Heath, DPhil; Saul Shiffman, PhD; Athina Markou, PhD; Diego A. Pizzagalli, PhD
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  Reward-related disturbances after withdrawal from nicotine are hypothesized to contribute to relapse to tobacco smoking but mechanisms underlying and linking such processes remain largely unknown.

Objective  To determine whether withdrawal from nicotine affects reward responsiveness (ie, the propensity to modulate behavior as a function of ...

Original Investigation 
Benjamin Vyssoki, MD; Nestor D. Kapusta, MD, PhD; Nicole Praschak-Rieder, MD, PhD; Georg Dorffner, PhD; Matthaeus Willeit, MD, PhD
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  It has been observed that suicidal behavior is influenced by sunshine and follows a seasonal pattern. However, seasons bring about changes in several other meteorological factors and a seasonal rhythm in social behavior may also contribute to fluctuations in suicide rates.

Objective  To investigate the ...

Topics: sunlight; suicide
Original Investigation 
Carlos Blanco, MD, PhD; Mayumi Okuda, MD; Shuai Wang, PhD; Shang-Min Liu, MS; Mark Olfson, MD, MPH

Importance  Adults who remit from a substance use disorder (SUD) are often thought to be at increased risk for developing another SUD. A greater understanding of the prevalence and risk factors for drug substitution would inform clinical monitoring and management.

Objective  To determine whether remission from ...

Neuroscience and Psychiatry 
Patrick Long, PhD; Gabriel Corfas, PhD
Since its initial discovery in the 1800s until recently, myelin was considered a simple insulator for axons, and its formation was believed to be regulated by predetermined biochemical and cellular processes. Moreover, both oligodendrocytes and the myelin they generate were considered to be static components of the nervous system. However, ...
Original Investigation  FREE
Sandra M. Meier, PhD; Liselotte Petersen, PhD; Marianne G. Pedersen, MSc; Mikkel C. B. Arendt, PhD; Philip R. Nielsen, PhD, MSc; Manuel Mattheisen, MD; Ole Mors, MD, PhD; Preben B. Mortensen, DrMedSc
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  Despite a remarkable co-occurrence of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and schizophrenia, little is known about the clinical and etiological relationship of these 2 disorders. Exploring the degree to which these disorders share etiological factors might provide useful implications for clinicians, researchers, and those with the disorders.

Objectives...

Original Investigation 
Ronny Redlich, MA; Jorge J. R. Almeida, MD, PhD; Dominik Grotegerd, MSc; Nils Opel; Harald Kugel, PhD; Walter Heindel, MD; Volker Arolt, MD, PhD; Mary L. Phillips, MD, MD(Cantab); Udo Dannlowski, MD, PhD
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  The structural abnormalities in the brain that accurately differentiate unipolar depression (UD) and bipolar depression (BD) remain unidentified.

Objectives  First, to investigate and compare morphometric changes in UD and BD, and to replicate the findings at 2 independent neuroimaging sites; second, to differentiate UD and ...

Original Investigation 
Israel Liberzon, MD; Anthony P. King, PhD; Kerry J. Ressler, MD, PhD; Lynn M. Almli, PhD; Peng Zhang, PhD; Sean T. Ma, PhD; Gregory H. Cohen, MPH; Marijo B. Tamburrino, MD; Joseph R. Calabrese, MD; Sandro Galea, MD, MPH
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), while highly prevalent (7.6% over a lifetime), develops only in a subset of trauma-exposed individuals. Genetic risk factors in interaction with trauma exposure have been implicated in PTSD vulnerability.

Objective  To examine the association of 3755 candidate gene single-nucleotide polymorphisms with ...

Original Investigation 
Ronald Lautner, MD; Sebastian Palmqvist, MD, PhD; Niklas Mattsson, MD, PhD; Ulf Andreasson, PhD; Anders Wallin, MD, PhD; Erik Pålsson, PhD; Joel Jakobsson, PhD; Sanna-Kaisa Herukka, BM, MSc, PhD; Rikard Owenius, PhD; Bob Olsson, PhD; Harald Hampel, MD; Dan Rujescu, MD, PhD; Michael Ewers, PhD; Mikael Landén, MD, PhD; Lennart Minthon, MD, PhD; Kaj Blennow, MD, PhD; Henrik Zetterberg, MD, PhD; Oskar Hansson, MD, PhD; for the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  Several studies suggest that the apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 allele modulates cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of β-amyloid 42 (Aβ42). Whether this effect is secondary to the association of the APOE ε4 allele with cortical Aβ deposition or whether APOE ε4 directly influences CSF levels ...

Original Investigation 
Ran Tao, PhD; Helena Cousijn, DPhil; Andrew E. Jaffe, PhD; Philip W. J. Burnet, PhD; Freya Edwards, BA; Sharon L. Eastwood, DPhil; Joo Heon Shin, PhD; Tracy A. Lane, PhD; Mary A. Walker; Brady J. Maher, PhD; Daniel R. Weinberger, MD; Paul J. Harrison, DM, FRCPsych; Thomas M. Hyde, MD, PhD; Joel E. Kleinman, MD, PhD
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  The single-nucleotide polymorphism rs1344706 in the zinc finger protein 804A gene (ZNF804A) shows genome-wide association with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Little is known regarding the expression of ZNF804A and the functionality of rs1344706.

Objectives  To characterize ZNF804A expression in human brain and to ...

The article by Hollon and colleagues1 in this issue of JAMA Psychiatry describes the main findings of one of the most important studies ever undertaken to evaluate the merits of combining psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy for treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD). This randomized clinical trial (RCT) compared the outcomes of ...
Original Investigation 
Manpreet K. Singh, MD, MS; Ryan G. Kelley, BS; Meghan E. Howe, MSW; Allan L. Reiss, MD; Ian H. Gotlib, PhD; Kiki D. Chang, MD
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  Bipolar disorder (BD) is highly familial and characterized by deficits in reward processing. It is not known, however, whether these deficits precede illness onset or are a consequence of the disorder.

Objective  To determine whether anomalous neural processing of reward characterizes children at familial risk ...

Original Investigation 
Steven D. Hollon, PhD; Robert J. DeRubeis, PhD; Jan Fawcett, MD; Jay D. Amsterdam, MD; Richard C. Shelton, MD; John Zajecka, MD; Paula R. Young, PhD; Robert Gallop, PhD

Importance  Antidepressant medication (ADM) is efficacious in the treatment of depression, but not all patients achieve remission and fewer still achieve recovery with ADM alone.

Objective  To determine the effects of combining cognitive therapy (CT) with ADM vs ADM alone on remission and recovery in major ...

Original Investigation 
Tobias U. Hauser, PhD; Reto Iannaccone, MS; Juliane Ball, PhD; Christoph Mathys, PhD; Daniel Brandeis, PhD; Susanne Walitza, MD; Silvia Brem, PhD
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been associated with deficient decision making and learning. Models of ADHD have suggested that these deficits could be caused by impaired reward prediction errors (RPEs). Reward prediction errors are signals that indicate violations of expectations and are known to be encoded by ...

Original Investigation 
Kathryn R. Cullen, MD; Melinda K. Westlund, BA; Bonnie Klimes-Dougan, PhD; Bryon A. Mueller, PhD; Alaa Houri, BS; Lynn E. Eberly, PhD; Kelvin O. Lim, MD
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  Major depressive disorder (MDD) frequently emerges during adolescence and can lead to persistent illness, disability, and suicide. The maturational changes that take place in the brain during adolescence underscore the importance of examining neurobiological mechanisms during this time of early illness. However, neural mechanisms of depression ...

Original Investigation 
Rebecca A. Bernert, PhD; Carolyn L. Turvey, PhD; Yeates Conwell, MD; Thomas E. Joiner Jr, PhD

Importance  Older adults have high rates of sleep disturbance, die by suicide at disproportionately higher rates compared with other age groups, and tend to visit their physician in the weeks preceding suicide death. To our knowledge, to date, no study has examined disturbed sleep as an independent ...

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