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 Showing 1-20 of 30 Articles
Original Investigation 
Michaeline Bresnahan, PhD, MPH; Mady Hornig, MD; Andrew F. Schultz, MS; Nina Gunnes, PhD; Deborah Hirtz, MD; Kari Kveim Lie, MD; Per Magnus, MD, PhD; Ted Reichborn-Kjennerud, MD, PhD; Christine Roth, PhD; Synnve Schjølberg, LPsy; Camilla Stoltenberg, MD, PhD; Pål Surén, MD, MPH; Ezra Susser, MD, DrPH; W. Ian Lipkin, MD
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  Gastrointestinal (GI) comorbidities are frequently described in association with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, the prevalence of GI disturbances and the age at which such problems first appear are unclear, and their specificity for ASD compared with other neurodevelopmental disorders is uncertain.

Objective  To compare ...

Original Investigation  FREE
Marsha M. Linehan, PhD; Kathryn E. Korslund, PhD; Melanie S. Harned, PhD; Robert J. Gallop, PhD; Anita Lungu, PhD; Andrada D. Neacsiu, PhD; Joshua McDavid, MD; Katherine Anne Comtois, PhD; Angela M. Murray-Gregory, MSW
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) is an empirically supported treatment for suicidal individuals. However, DBT consists of multiple components, including individual therapy, skills training, telephone coaching, and a therapist consultation team, and little is known about which components are needed to achieve positive outcomes.

Objective  To ...

Original Investigation 
Jean-Paul Selten, MD, PhD; Michael Lundberg, MPH; Dheeraj Rai, MRCPsych, PhD; Cecilia Magnusson, MD, PhD
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  Whether individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are at increased risk for nonaffective psychotic disorder (NAPD) or bipolar disorder (BD) is unknown.

Objective  To test whether the risks for NAPD and BD in individuals with ASD are increased and whether these risks are higher than ...

Original Investigation 
Annelieke M. Roest, PhD; Peter de Jonge, PhD; Craig D. Williams, PharmD; Ymkje Anna de Vries, MSc; Robert A. Schoevers, MD, PhD; Erick H. Turner, MD
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  Studies have shown that the scientific literature has overestimated the efficacy of antidepressants for depression, but other indications for these drugs have not been considered.

Objective  To examine reporting biases in double-blind, placebo-controlled trials on the pharmacologic treatment of anxiety disorders and quantify the extent ...

Original Investigation 
Bradley S. Peterson, MD; Virginia A. Rauh, ScD; Ravi Bansal, PhD; Xuejun Hao, PhD; Zachary Toth, BA; Giancarlo Nati, BA; Kirwan Walsh, BA; Rachel L. Miller, MD; David Semanek, BA; Frederica Perera, DrPH, PhD
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous and neurotoxic environmental contaminants. Prenatal PAH exposure is associated with subsequent cognitive and behavioral disturbances in childhood.

Objectives  To identify the effects of prenatal PAH exposure on brain structure and to assess the cognitive and behavioral correlates of those ...

Original Investigation 
Donovan T. Maust, MD, MS; Hyungjin Myra Kim, ScD; Lisa S. Seyfried, MD, MS; Claire Chiang, PhD; Janet Kavanagh, MS; Lon S. Schneider, MD, MS; Helen C. Kales, MD

Importance  Antipsychotic medications are associated with increased mortality in older adults with dementia, yet their absolute effect on risk relative to no treatment or an alternative psychotropic is unclear.

Objective  To determine the absolute mortality risk increase and number needed to harm (NNH) (ie, number of ...

Original Investigation 
Anne L. Wheeler, PhD; Michèle Wessa, PhD; Philip R. Szeszko, PhD; George Foussias, MD, MSc; M. Mallar Chakravarty, PhD; Jason P. Lerch, PhD; Pamela DeRosse, PhD; Gary Remington, MD, PhD; Benoit H. Mulsant, MD; Julia Linke, PhD; Anil K. Malhotra, MD; Aristotle N. Voineskos, MD, PhD
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  The clinical heterogeneity of schizophrenia has hindered neurobiological investigations aimed at identifying neural correlates of the disorder.

Objective  To identify network-based biomarkers across the spectrum of impairment present in schizophrenia by separately evaluating individuals with deficit and nondeficit subtypes of this disorder.

Design, Setting, and ...

Original Investigation 
Corina U. Greven, PhD; Janita Bralten, Msc; Maarten Mennes, PhD; Laurence O’Dwyer, PhD; Kimm J. E. van Hulzen, PhD; Nanda Rommelse, PhD; Lizanne J. S. Schweren, MSc; Pieter J. Hoekstra, MD, PhD; Catharina A. Hartman, PhD; Dirk Heslenfeld, PhD; Jaap Oosterlaan, PhD; Stephen V. Faraone, PhD; Barbara Franke, PhD; Marcel P. Zwiers, PhD; Alejandro Arias-Vasquez, PhD; Jan K. Buitelaar, MD, PhD
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a heritable neurodevelopmental disorder. It has been linked to reductions in total brain volume and subcortical abnormalities. However, owing to heterogeneity within and between studies and limited sample sizes, findings on the neuroanatomical substrates of ADHD have shown considerable variability. Moreover, it ...

Original Investigation 
Daniel H. Wolf, MD, PhD; Theodore D. Satterthwaite, MD, MA; Monica E. Calkins, PhD; Kosha Ruparel, MSE; Mark A. Elliott, PhD; Ryan D. Hopson, BA; Chad T. Jackson, MSE; Karthik Prabhakaran, MS; Warren B. Bilker, PhD; Hakon Hakonarson, MD, PhD; Ruben C. Gur, PhD; Raquel E. Gur, MD, PhD
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  The continuum view of the psychosis spectrum (PS) implies that, in population-based samples, PS symptoms should be associated with neural abnormalities similar to those found in help-seeking clinical risk individuals and in schizophrenia. To our knowledge, functional neuroimaging has not previously been applied in large population-based ...

Original Investigation  FREE
Roselinde H. Kaiser, PhD; Jessica R. Andrews-Hanna, PhD; Tor D. Wager, PhD; Diego A. Pizzagalli, PhD
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  Major depressive disorder (MDD) has been linked to imbalanced communication among large-scale brain networks, as reflected by abnormal resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC). However, given variable methods and results across studies, identifying consistent patterns of network dysfunction in MDD has been elusive.

Objective  To investigate network ...

Viewpoint 
David A. Ross, MD, PhD; Michael J. Travis, MD; Melissa R. Arbuckle, MD, PhD
In 2012, Thomas Insel,1 director of the National Institute of Mental Health, wrote an essay entitled The Future of Psychiatry ( = Clinical Neuroscience), echoing a familiar trope in our field.2 The themes he described then are even more relevant today. Technologic advances have enhanced our ability to study the ...
Original Investigation 
Theodore J. Cicero, PhD; Matthew S. Ellis, MPE

Importance  In an effort to reduce wide-scale abuse of the proprietary oxycodone hydrochloride formulation OxyContin, an abuse-deterrent formulation (ADF) was introduced in 2010. Although the reformulation produced an immediate drop in abuse rates, a definite ceiling effect appeared over time, beyond which no further decrease was seen. ...

Original Investigation 
David W. Oslin, MD; Shirley H. Leong, PhD; Kevin G. Lynch, PhD; Wade Berrettini, MD, PhD; Charles P. O’Brien, MD, PhD; Adam J. Gordon, MD, MPH; Margaret Rukstalis, MD
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  Alcohol use disorder is one of the leading causes of disability worldwide. While effective pharmacological treatments exist, they are efficacious only in certain individuals, contributing to their limited use. Secondary analysis of clinical trial data suggests that a functional polymorphism (rs1799971, Asn40Asp) of the µ-opioid receptor ...

Viewpoint 
Matthew L. Goldman, MD, MS; Ravi N. Shah, MD; Carol A. Bernstein, MD
This Viewpoint suggests that national organizations should address the mental health of residents and fellows by proposing strategies for comprehensive education, screening, and treatment.
Original Investigation 
Tiziano Pramparo, PhD; Karen Pierce, PhD; Michael V. Lombardo, PhD; Cynthia Carter Barnes, PhD; Steven Marinero, BS; Clelia Ahrens-Barbeau, BS; Sarah S. Murray, PhD; Linda Lopez, MA; Ronghui Xu, PhD; Eric Courchesne, PhD
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  The identification of genomic signatures that aid early identification of individuals at risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in the toddler period remains a major challenge because of the genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity of the disorder. Generally, ASD is not diagnosed before the fourth to fifth ...

Original Investigation 
Emma Colvert, PhD; Beata Tick, MSc; Fiona McEwen, PhD; Catherine Stewart, PhD; Sarah R. Curran, MD; Emma Woodhouse, BSc; Nicola Gillan, BSc; Victoria Hallett, PhD; Stephanie Lietz, PhD; Tracy Garnett, DClinPsych; Angelica Ronald, PhD; Robert Plomin, PhD; Frühling Rijsdijk, PhD; Francesca Happé, PhD; Patrick Bolton, MD
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  Most evidence to date highlights the importance of genetic influences on the liability to autism and related traits. However, most of these findings are derived from clinically ascertained samples, possibly missing individuals with subtler manifestations, and obtained estimates may not be representative of the population.

Objectives...

Original Investigation 
W. Brad Ruzicka, MD, PhD; Sivan Subburaju, PhD; Francine M. Benes, MD, PhD
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  Dysfunction related to γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)–ergic neurotransmission in the pathophysiology of major psychosis has been well established by the work of multiple groups across several decades, including the widely replicated downregulation of GAD1. Prior gene expression and network analyses within the human hippocampus implicate a ...

Original Investigation 
Amelia Versace, MD; Heather Acuff, BS; Michele A. Bertocci, PhD; Genna Bebko, PhD; Jorge R. C. Almeida, MD, PhD; Susan B. Perlman, PhD; Alexander Leemans, PhD; Claudiu Schirda, PhD; Haris Aslam, BA; Amanda Dwojak, BA; Lisa Bonar, BS; Michael Travis, MD; Mary Kay Gill, RN, MSN; Christine Demeter, MA; Vaibhav A. Diwadkar, PhD; Jeffrey L. Sunshine, MD, PhD; Scott K. Holland, PhD; Robert. A. Kowatch, MD, PhD; Boris Birmaher, MD; David Axelson, MD; Sarah M. Horwitz, PhD; Thomas W. Frazier, PhD; L. Eugene Arnold, MD, MEd; Mary. A Fristad, PhD, ABPP; Eric A. Youngstrom, PhD; Robert L. Findling, MD, MBA; Mary L. Phillips, MD, MD(Cantab)
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  Psychiatric disorders in youth characterized by behavioral and emotional dysregulation are often comorbid and difficult to distinguish. An alternative approach to conceptualizing these disorders is to move toward a diagnostic system based on underlying pathophysiologic processes that may cut across conventionally defined diagnoses. Neuroimaging techniques have ...

Original Investigation 
Jacob A. S. Vorstman, MD, PhD; Elemi J. Breetvelt, MD, PhD; Sasja N. Duijff, PhD; Stephan Eliez, MD; Maude Schneider, MSc; Maria Jalbrzikowski, PhD; Marco Armando, MD, PhD; Stefano Vicari, MD, PhD; Vandana Shashi, MD; Stephen R. Hooper, PhD; Eva W. C. Chow, MD, MPH, FRCPC; Wai Lun Alan Fung, MD, ScD, FRCPC; Nancy J. Butcher, MSc; Donald A. Young, PhD, EdD; Donna M. McDonald-McGinn, MS, CGC; Annick Vogels, MD, PhD; Therese van Amelsvoort, MD, PhD; Doron Gothelf, MD; Ronnie Weinberger, MA; Abraham Weizman, MD; Petra W. J. Klaassen, MSc; Sanne Koops, MSc; Wendy R. Kates, PhD; Kevin M. Antshel, PhD; Tony J. Simon, PhD; Opal Y. Ousley, PhD; Ann Swillen, PhD; Raquel E. Gur, MD, PhD; Carrie E. Bearden, PhD; René S. Kahn, MD, PhD; Anne S. Bassett, MD, FRCPC; for the International Consortium on Brain and Behavior in 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  Patients with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) have an elevated (25%) risk of developing schizophrenia. Recent reports have suggested that a subgroup of children with 22q11DS display a substantial decline in cognitive abilities starting at a young age.

Objective  To determine whether early cognitive decline is ...

Original Investigation 
Matthew P. Hyett, BSc, PGDipPsych; Michael J. Breakspear, MBBS, PhD, FRANZCP; Karl J. Friston, MBBS, MRCPsych, FRS; Christine C. Guo, PhD; Gordon B. Parker, MD, PhD, FRANZCP
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  Patients with melancholia report a distinct and intrusive dysphoric state during internally generated thought. Melancholia has long been considered to have a strong biological component, but evidence for its specific neurobiological origins is limited. The distinct neurocognitive, psychomotor, and mood disturbances observed in melancholia do, however, ...

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