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  • JAMA Psychiatry May 1, 2017

    Figure 3: Measurement Required in Static and Dynamic Predictive Models

    The green and orange lines represent different trajectories to threshold-level mental disorder. The blue circles on the x-axis represent measurement time points. Macro-level assessments involve repeated assessment time points (eg, at monthly intervals). Micro-level assessments are represented by the magnifying glass symbol. These assessments involve high-resolution, granular-level assessments (eg, repeated assessments over the course of a day).
  • JAMA Psychiatry January 1, 2013

    Figure: Microglial Activation in Young Adults With Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Figure 2. Results of the whole-brain voxel-based statistical parametric mapping analysis of the [11C](R)-PK11195 binding potentials. Locations of clusters with significant increases in the group with autism spectrum disorder compared with the control group (P < .05, false discovery rate corrected) are shown on glass brain images and superimposed onto normal-template magnetic resonance images. L indicates left; and R, right.
  • JAMA Psychiatry December 1, 2011

    Figure: Reinforcement Learning and Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome: Dissociation of Clinical Phenotypes and Pharmacological Treatments

    Figure 2. Whole-brain imaging results. A, Representation of hand movements at the time of cue onset. Axial sections (bottom) correspond to the blue lines on sagittal glass brains (top). B, Representation of reward receipt at the time of outcome onset. Coronal sections (bottom) correspond to the blue lines on sagittal glass brains (top). Areas colored in gray-to-black gradient on glass brains and in red-to-white gradient on sections demonstrated significant effects (P < .05, familywise error). The x, y, and z coordinates of maxima refer to the Montreal Neurological Institute. M1 indicates primary motor cortex; PCC, posterior cingulate cortex; SMA, supplementary motor area; vmPFC, ventromedial prefrontal cortex; and VS, ventral striatum.
  • JAMA Psychiatry March 7, 2011

    Figure 2: Reduced Acetylcholinesterase Activity in the Fusiform Gyrus in Adults With Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Results of the whole-brain voxel-based statistical parametric mapping analysis of the N -[11C]methylpiperidin-4-yl acetate ([11C]MP4A) k3 value distribution maps. A, Normalized and averaged [11C]MP4A k3 parametric maps from control subjects and subjects with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are shown. B, Areas with significantly reduced [11C]MP4A k3 values in subjects with ASD compared with those in controls (P < .05, corrected) are rendered on glass brains. C, Results from analyses of covariance are shown. Areas with significantly lower [11C]MP4A k3 values in the ASD group than in the control group (P < .05, corrected) are indicated. The location of a cluster with significant negative correlations between [11C]MP4A k3 values and Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule social scores (D) or Autism Diagnostic Interview–Revised social scores (E) in subjects with ASD (P < .05, corrected) is shown. The locations are rendered on the standard-brain T1 template. A indicates anterior; P, posterior;
  • JAMA Psychiatry August 1, 2010

    Figure 1: Short-term Effects of Antipsychotic Treatment on Cerebral Function in Drug-Naive First-Episode Schizophrenia Revealed by “Resting State” Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Glass brain images (left panels) and rendered images (right panels) showing results of the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) analysis. Upper panels: compared with normal controls, patients at baseline showed significantly decreased (blue) ALFF only in the bilateral ventral medial frontal cortex. Middle panels: compared with baseline, patients after 6 weeks of antipsychotic treatment showed significantly increased (red) ALFF in several regions, mainly in the bilateral prefrontal and parietal lobes, left superior temporal gyrus, and right caudate. Lower panels: compared with controls, patients after 6 weeks of treatment showed significantly increased (red) ALFF in the right caudate and left putamen. All analyses were corrected for multiple comparisons. T indicates treatment.
  • JAMA Psychiatry February 1, 2009

    Figure 3: Relationship of Type 1 Cannabinoid Receptor Availability in the Human Brain to Novelty-Seeking Temperament

    Statistical parametric maps showing the inverse correlation of the novelty-seeking subdimension extravagance with type 1 cannabinoid receptor availability. Clusters are shown at the level of P < .05 (corrected for multiple comparisons), with a cluster size extent greater than 400. Clusters are overlaid on an average T1-weighted magnetic resonance image of the studied group and are also shown in glass brain representations on the right. Images are in radiologic orientation.
  • JAMA Psychiatry January 1, 2009

    Figure 5: Distinct Effects of Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol and Cannabidiol on Neural Activation During Emotional Processing

    Effect of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) on brain activation during processing of intensely fearful faces, glass brain. Functional overlays: Δ9-THC > placebo (top) and placebo > Δ9-THC (bottom). Left side of the Figure is the left side of the brain.
  • JAMA Psychiatry February 1, 2007

    Figure 3: Neural and Genetic Correlates of Antidepressant Response to Sleep Deprivation: A Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study of Moral Valence Decision in Bipolar Depression

    Glass-brain images of gray matter areas in which a significant effect of moral valence (negative or positive) was detected at baseline and after treatment.
  • JAMA Psychiatry February 1, 2007

    Figure 4: Neural and Genetic Correlates of Antidepressant Response to Sleep Deprivation: A Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study of Moral Valence Decision in Bipolar Depression

    Glass-brain images of gray matter areas in which a significant interaction of valence × treatment × response was detected (A) and, within the same areas, voxels in which a significant interaction of valence × genotype was detected at baseline (B).
  • JAMA Psychiatry June 1, 2006

    Figure 2: Neural Correlates of Antinociception in Borderline Personality Disorder

    Volumes of brain regions activated by thermal stimuli correspond to subjectively induced pain intensity. A, Glass brain views for the 4 conditions (P<.05; whole-brain corrected). B, Overall mean volumes of the activated regions for patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) and controls and for a fixed stimulus temperature of 43°C and individually adjusted temperatures to a numeric rating scale pain intensity rating of 40 (NRS 40). The respective mean ± SEM pain ratings during the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) sessions are given by triangles. Error bars indicate SEM; *, P<.001 using a 2-tailed t test.
  • JAMA Psychiatry January 1, 2006

    Figure 4: Brain Serotonin Transporter Density and Aggression in Abstinent Methamphetamine Abusers

    Results of the whole-brain voxel-based statistical parametric mapping analysis of the trans-1,2,3,5,6,10-beta-hexahydro-6-[4-(methylthio)phenyl]pyrrolo-[2,1-a]isoquinoline ([11C](+)McN-5652) distribution volumes (DVs). A, Locations of methamphetamine abuser and control differences in [11C](+)McN-5652 DVs. Areas with significantly reduced [11C](+)McN-5652 DVs in methamphetamine abusers compared with those in controls (P<.001, corrected for cluster level) are given in Table 2. B, Locations of clusters with significant negative correlations between Aggression Questionnaire scores and [11C](+)McN-5652 DVs in methamphetamine abusers (P<.05, corrected for voxel level) (Table 3). Each top row shows 3-dimensional glass brain views; each bottom row, detected area superimposed onto normal template magnetic resonance images.
  • JAMA Psychiatry August 1, 2005

    Figure 1: Disorder-Specific Neuroanatomical Correlates of Attentional Bias in Obsessive-compulsive Disorder, Panic Disorder, and Hypochondriasis

    Glass brain” renderings showing main effects for the contrasts of interest (incongruent vs congruent color words, obsessive-compulsive disorder [OCD]–related vs neutral words, and panic-related vs neutral words). PD indicates panic disorder.
  • JAMA Psychiatry April 1, 2005

    Figure 1: Neuroanatomic Correlates of Psychopathologic Components of Major Depressive Disorder

    Regions shown as a volume in the glass brain. Maps of correlations of relative regional glucose metabolic rate in human brain in major depression, with severity of depression measured by the 24-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. Upper left, overall depression (total score). Upper right, Factor 1: psychic depression. Lower left, Factor 2: loss of motivated behavior. Lower right, Factor 5: sleep disturbance.
  • JAMA Psychiatry April 1, 2005

    Figure 1: Alterations in Regional Cerebral Glucose Metabolism Across Waking and Non–Rapid Eye Movement Sleep in Depression

    Glass brain and 3-dimensional brain-rendering images showing regions with significant declines in relative metabolism from waking to non–rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. Left column, Healthy subjects. Regions include the prefrontal cortex (x = 28, y = 54, z = 20; tmax = 7.32; 5771 voxels); cuneus, precuneus, and left temporoparietal cortex (x = 6, y = −78, z = 32; tmax = 6.70; 3396 voxels); and right temporoparietal cortex (x = 56, y = −54, z = 20; tmax = 4.78; 2305 voxels). Right column, Depressed subjects. Regions include the cuneus, precuneus, and temporoparietal cortex (x = 8, y = −90, z = −8; tmax = 7.60; 5303 voxels); left prefrontal cortex (x = −34, y = 52, z = 12; tmax = 6.95; 2500 voxels); and right prefrontal cortex (x = 26, y = 36, z = −8; tmax = 6.08; 1325 voxels). All clusters reported are significant at P < .05, corrected. Coordinates refer to local cluster maxima in Talairach sections.
  • JAMA Psychiatry November 1, 2004

    Figure 1: Cognitive Enhancers as Adjuncts to Psychotherapy: Use of D-Cycloserine in Phobic Individuals to Facilitate Extinctionof Fear

    Acrophobia within the virtual environment.A, Level of fear as measured by subjective units of discomfort (1 = nofear, 100 = maximum fear) during the pretreatment assessment ateach successive floor in the virtual glass elevator. B, Subjective units ofdiscomfort during the first treatment session in which subjects were elevatedto successive floors at 5-minute intervals. C, Floor to which the subjectswere elevated at 5-minute intervals during the first treatment session. Therewere no significant differences between the groups during the pretreatmentsubjective units of discomfort measure or either measure during the firsttreatment session. Error bars indicate SEM.
  • JAMA Psychiatry November 1, 2004

    Figure 2: Cognitive Enhancers as Adjuncts to Psychotherapy: Use of D-Cycloserine in Phobic Individuals to Facilitate Extinctionof Fear

    Acrophobia within the virtual environmentis improved with D-cycloserine. A, Reduction in fear from pretest to posttestfollowing the 2 therapy sessions measured at the first follow-up assessment.Decrease in subjective units of discomfort level (y-axis) is shown for eachfloor (1-19) of the virtual glass elevator. Overall analysis of variance wasperformed using pre-post difference and floor as within-subjects variablesand drug group as between-subjects variable. Significant overall pre-postchanges were seen: F1,25 = 38, P≤.001.Significant effect of floor was found: F6,150 = 89, P≤.001. Most importantly, significant effect of pre-post × floor × druginteraction was found: F6,150 = 3.8, P≤.001. B, Change in subjective units of discomfort from pretestto posttest at the 3-month long-term follow-up assessment. Statistics wereperformed as above. Significant overall pre-post changes were seen: F1,17 = 21, P≤.001. Significanteffect of floor was found: F6,102 = 81, P≤.001. Most importantly, significant effect of pre-post × floor × druginteraction was found: F6,102 = 2.4, P≤.05. Error bars indicate SEM.
  • JAMA Psychiatry July 1, 2004

    Figure 1: Mapping Structural Brain Alterations in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Statistical parametric t map (SPM{t140}) of gray mattervolume reduction in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Clusters of more than 1000voxels showing uncorrected P<.001 are displayed.The 3 orthogonal planes on the left side represent a typical maximum intensityprojection "glass brain," and the set of images on the right side illustrateresults superimposed on normalized structural images in selected planes. Rindicates the right hemisphere, and the color bar represents the t score. Significant voxels were found in the orbitofrontal cortex,medial frontal gyrus, and left insulo-opercular region (corrected P<.05). Note that right insular and retrosplenial changes, showinga tendency toward significance, are also displayed.
  • JAMA Psychiatry August 1, 2003

    Figure 1: Gray and White Matter Brain Abnormalities in First-Episode Schizophrenia Inferred From Magnetization Transfer Imaging

    Glass brain image of magnetization transfer ratio reductions in patients with first-episode schizophrenia vs controls. Arrowheads indicate peak voxel. SPM indicates statistical parametric map. Height threshold: t = 3.24; P = .001.
  • Welcome, Joe!

    Abstract Full Text
    Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2002; 59(1):12-12. doi: 10.1001/archpsyc.59.1.12
  • Thanks and Farewell to Jack Barchas, MD

    Abstract Full Text
    Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2001; 58(10):900-900. doi: 10.1001/archpsyc.58.10.900